Issuers of debt obligations that are required to be in registered form but are not issued in registered form are subject to the disallowance of interest deductions under section 163(f) and the imposition of an excise tax under section 4701. Any gain on the sale or other disposition of such an obligation is generally treated under section 1287 as ordinary income rather than capital gain, and, under section 165(j), no deduction is permitted for any loss sustained. In addition, the exception from tax for U.S. source, portfolio interest received by a nonresident alien or foreign corporation under section 871(h) and section 881(c) (portfolio interest exception) is generally not available with respect to interest paid on debt that is not issued in registered form (bearer debt).
The foregoing rules generally do not apply with respect to bearer debt that complies with the foreign-targeting rules of section 163(f)(2)(B) and the regulations thereunder. However, section 502 of the HIRE Act generally eliminated the various exceptions for foreign-targeted bearer debt, effective for obligations issued after March 18, 2012. As a result of this change in law, with respect to obligations issued after March 18, 2012, the portfolio interest exception will be available only for obligations issued in registered form.